forested and provided protection to the buildings. At one site in Gautier, many of. In wood-framed residential construction, the county requires that hurricane anchors or straps be used to connect each rafter to the top wall plate and that each stud be strapped to a floor joist (Figure 4-37). reasonably reliable data up to and beyond the peak of the storm. The eye of Hurricane Frederic passed directly over this area (Figure 1-2), and so it is probable that these buildings did not experience the high winds measured at the bridge. A camera operator captures footage of the damage inflicted by Hurricane Elena at Gulf Shores, Alabama, and Alligator Point, Florida. d Class A—ordinary toenailed connections. Anchors generally have capacities in the range of 250 to 350 lb or 500 to. On the negative side, a number of metal building systems performed in a less than satisfactory manner and sustained damage ranging from minor cladding failures to loss of an entire end bay of the building. Metal straps could be observed tying the roofs to the walls, but the masonry appeared to have been inadequately tied to the stud walls. Thus, the averaging time depends on the wind speed. A metal-clad, timber-framed boat storage facility had been completly destroyed in Frederic and was replaced with the preengineered building shown in Figure 4-48. Figure 4-16 Shear failure of house, Pascagoula. Two factors did help to ameliorate these problems locally. Elena was so erratic that it caused hurricane warnings to be issued along the entire Gulf Coast, from Sarasota to Grand Island, La. Hurricane Claudette caused minimal impact in the Lesser Antilles. Paneling was sometimes sucked from the corners of buildings. An analysis of the wind data from the Dauphin Island Bridge by Reinhold and Mehta (1981) determined that the fastest-mile wind speed during Frederic, reduced to started height and exposure, was 106 mph. Special care is needed in these regions, but an architect or engineer using the Standard Building Code prior to 1986 to specify the uplift requirements would probably have underestimated the need by at least a factor of two. The fact that very few houses were damaged on the island was considered a triumph of good building regulations. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Not a MyNAP member yet? The effect of this underdesign is illustrated more clearly in Table 4-3, taken from Sparks (1987a). At most, they would have been designed for uplifts of abut 30 lb/ft2. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Shingles were quite frequently stripped from edges of roofs, again as a result of locally high suctions. These tests apply a sequence of negative pressures to the upper surface of the roof and positive pressures to the underside of the roof. They were wood panel structures that, despite the occasional use of metal straps, were improperly tied together. As land values have risen, beach houses have become larger, and prefabricated trusses spaced at 2 ft on center have become more common. These buildings probably did not meet the code requirements at the time they were built. Considering the damage sustained by many schools on the mainland, it is interesting to note that the small wooden school on Dauphin Island survived with very little damage, as it had in Hurricanes Frederic and Camille (Figure 4-50). In most houses there are fewer than 100 connections to be made. They may have even exceeded the capacity of a Class 90 roof. A number of multistory buildings, including an apartment building in Ocean Springs (Figure 4-29) and hospital buildings in Gautier, Ocean Springs, Biloxi, and Gulfport, sustained virtually no damage except that an occasional window was broken by windborne debris. Hurricane Elena carved out an erratic path over the Gulf of Mexico during Labor Day weekend, 1985. The Broadwater Reach Marina in Biloxi survived this storm and Hurricane Frederic with virtually no damage (Figure 4-36). Figure 11.21 shows the 500-mb chart over four of the five days that Elena threatened the Gulf Coast. Figure 4-11 Collapse of masonry-walled garage following loss of roof, Pascagoula. Initially, it was intended that enforcement of the code should be on a regional basis, but after a short time this became politically unpopular and control passed to local governments. Keesler Air Force Base presented an exposed site for a large number of reinforced masonry two-to three-story buildings (Figure 4-27). While preengineered structures can be readily identified as a class, the distinction between fully, marginally, and nonengineered structures has become indistinct in many hurricane-prone areas. Figure 4-23 Preengineered metal buildings and conventional construction on west bank of Ingalls Shipyard. Loss of watertightness also proved to be a problem for many other buildings, including the new Vocational High School in Pascagoula and several buildings located at the Jackson County campus of the Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior College (Figure 4-28). Photo is dated 09--1985. The recorded gust wind speed at the standard height of 33 ft was 122 mph. Hurricane Elena Florida house damage.jpg 600 × 397; 50 KB Hurricane Elena Florida road damage.jpg 600 × 897; 104 KB Hurricane Elena STS-51-I 1985-08 … Considering that building codes had been in use in the area from at least 1969 and a serious attempt had been made to enforce the regulations, the extensive damage observed suggests one or both of the following causes: Wind pressures and forces are in excess of those specified by the building code. In addition, many buildings undoubtedly received some shelter from the full force of the wind. were not properly anchored into the top of the wall, but note also the buckling of the lower flange of the bar joists (Figure 4-6). But it had been anything of a direct path. The first was an apartment building in a fairly exposed location near the center of Pascagoula. Although of an unusual shape and in a very exposed location, these relatively heavy concrete-shell roofs had apparently been properly designed to resist the expected wind loads. Few of the professionally designed buildings damaged in Elena were prestigious structures in which careful control of the construction would have been carried out by the designer. Unfortunately, these structures are often designed as a set of isolated components without regard for their combined role in the complete system or an appreciation for the major structural consequences of an apparently minor component failure, such as window breakage or door loss. Treating them as bipitched would have underestimated the suction loads. The design wind speeds on most of the Gulf and South Atlantic coasts are similar to those on Dauphin Island. In cases where the anchors held, damage to the superstructure was extensive (Figure 4-19). Hurricane Elena Pictures, Images and Stock Photos. Exact date shot unknown. Churches generally favor steep-pitched roofs that experience low uplift forces except when the wind is blowing over the gable end. Figure 4-20 Component and fastener loads for design wind speeds of 100 mph. Nevertheless, virtually all buildings came through a storm close to the ''once-in-50-year event'' with very little damage. Descriptions of some of the more serious school failures are found in Appendix A. Masonry-walled commercial structures with light metal roofs tend to suffer the same problems as similarly constructed schools. Hurricane Elena, following an erratic and difficult-to-forecast course along an unusually large section of the Gulf Coast, posed special problems from New Orleans, Louisiana, to Sarasota, Florida, well before it came ashore on September 2, 1985. Hurricane Elena was a … You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. This collection of photos from that year reminds us that Tampa Bay has been fortunate for a very long time. In most cases, buildings survived this storm because they had roof-to-wall connections capable of resisting the uplift forces imposed on them. Elena's unusual path through the Gulf of Mexico, which included a loop, caused many people to evacuate from the coastline. This would have served to prevent any significant increase in internal pressure during the passage of Elena. Furthermore, the amended Standard Building Code (SBC2) dangerously underestimated the forces on steeper-pitched roofs because it ignored the suction generated when the wind is parallel to the ridge of the roof. Some damage did take place where buildings were exposed. As indicated earlier, most of the damage in Elena was on the exposed western end of the island. (U.S. Army video) A rest area located on either side of Interstate Highway 10 north of Moss Point provided a siting for a large number of open shelters (Figures 4-31, 4-32, and 4-33) consisting of small timber-framed roofs supported on precast concrete columns. Thus, although Mobile County had been diligent in requiring hurricane anchors on houses, the difference in the patterns of damage during Frederic and Elena was probably attributable not only to structural factors but also to unusual meteorological and topographical circumstances. A detailed survey of mobile homes was not conducted, but a few mobile home sites were visited. To the east of the country club lie two similarly exposed sets of build-. However, two, major failures took place when walls were blown inward where, internal pressure was not a factor. For this reason, in describing damage, the majority of buildings are classified by function, with the exception of metal building systems (preengineered structures) and structures that were obviously fully engineered. First, the South Florida Building Code was used for areas within 1,000 ft of the shore. This was probably the result of a combination of factors, including the use of an inappropriate building code, poor design specification, poor installation, and deterioration; it was probably not the result of excessive wind speeds. Hurricane David also caused heavy beach erosion and $10 million in damage. Building sustained no wind damage. He hurricane caused four deaths and $125 million in damage. No damage to multipurpose metal building. ings, the Dolphin Surf Beach Club and the Sand Castle Condominiums (Figure 4-46). The Steel Joist Institute recommends that joists be anchored to walls by welding them to plates attached to either one 3/4-inch-diameter steel rod embedded 1 ft into the wall or, in the case of walls with parapets less than 2 ft high, two 3/4-inch-diameter anchor bolts. As seen in Figure 4-48, the walls are free of cladding near the ground. est-mile wind speeds in Hurricane Elena were, at worst, in the mid-90-mph range, with a recurrence interval of less than 50 years. Tidal surges flattened about 50 businesses and homes on the west end of Dauphin Island. Meteorology data were gathered and summarized in this report. Wall Failures The specification of the wind loads on the walls has generally been quite adequate, except perhaps when a high internal pressure develops. The roofs were of a shape not covered by the code. Figure 4-49 Undamaged modern metal building, Dauphin Island. The large industrial complex east of Pascagoula provided a very exposed location for a large number of both fully-engineered and preengineered buildings (Figure 4-30). It is unlikely that in hurricane conditions the recommended anchorage using an embedded rod in masonry without a bond beam would be sufficient for any light roof system, relying as it does on the weight of a few masonry units and their bond strength. Figure 4-25 First Baptist Church of Lyman. a SBC1—Standard Building Code prior to 1974; SBC2—Standard Building Code 1974 to 1986; SBC3—Standard Building Code 1986 to present (alternate from 1982); and SFBC—South Florida Building Code. The Payless Shoe Source in Pascagoula may have been designed professionally, but it was probably below the size where this would have been required by the code. One exception was that a significant number sustained damage to their roof coverings, resulting in extreme water damage to their contents. Virtually all major damage took place in the following exposed areas: (a) the treeless western part of the island, (b) south of the dune line and forest in the center of the island, and (c) on a promontory on the north side of the island that was exposed to easterly winds. This type of anchor has negligible uplift resistance. Hurricane Elena spawned tornadoes and produced $120 millions (1979 USD) wind damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States, primarily in Louisiana, while the remnants caused flooding, especially in Indiana. This gust wind speed is associated with a fastest-mile wind speed of approximately 90 mph, which has a recurrence interval of less than 30 years. Figure 4-42 Roof damage showing the influence of roof shape, Dauphin Island. SBC3 also gives the designer the option of considering the building to be partially enclosed. In these circumstances, the design wind load will occur in the presence of the full dead load. Even still, the test might not exceed the expected suction on the corner of a roofing membrane. In one location where the wall was not protected by the canopy, the bar joists failed, and the wall, lacking top support, collapsed. {{filterDisplayName(filter)}} Duration. The correct design of the roof-to-wall connectors is vital to the integrity of the complete structure. Tampa Bay residents became glued to their TVs, watching as it drifted lazily around the gulf as wind and rain pounded the area. It is unlikely that such anchors would survive the development of a windward opening. These problems were compounded by the fact that the Standard Building Code provided velocity pressures for design wind speeds taken from the wind-speed map. the use of the 1969 edition of the Standard Building Code (Southern Building Code Congress International [SBCCI], 1969) amended for areas within 1,000 ft of the shore to include the wind load provisions of the then-current South Florida Building Code (Dade County Board of County Commissioners, 1959). Most were fairly well sheltered; nevertheless, many mobile homes turned over because their anchors pulled out of the ground (Figure 4-18). Roof spans are usually longer and walls higher. By convention, Cp, is positive when the resulting force is directed toward a surface and negative when directed away from the surface. The upgrading of the Standard Building Code took place as a result of pressure from the metal building industry, and many manufacturers took advantage of the new regulations when they became an alternative procedure in 1982. A classification system for roofing systems, including the waterproof membrane, decking, insulation, and supporting system, is available based on the successful resistance to a series of tests conducted in accordance with Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 580 specification (Underwriters Laboratory, 1980). Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features? On the more exposed eastern tip of the island, the older military buildings at Fort Gaines, including some dating back to the Spanish-American War, survived with little damage apart from some loss of the waterproof covering of the roofs (Figure 4-38). Regrettably, economic conditions and the competitive nature of low-rise construction may have encouraged some members of the industry to continue to use the older provisions even though the improved alternative procedures had been adopted by the Standard Building Code in 1982. Some recent wind tunnel experiments have shown, in retrospect, that this pattern of damage was to be expected. These regulations, while not the most stringent used by coastal communities, are typical of the regulations used by the more progressive jurisdictions. Following Hurricane. Although the high-water mark did not reach the buildings in this storm, they were damaged by water in Hurricane Frederic. A second form of anchorage mentioned in the code that uses a bond beam would prove satisfactory only if the bond beam were properly tied to the foundation by vertical wall reinforcement. Table 4-2 shows the pressures that might have been used by a prudent designer who anticipated the possibility that an accidental opening might occur in a wind-ward wall as a result, for example, of window damage. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Because similar design conditions and building control procedures exist along other U.S. hurricane-prone coasts, the conclusions drawn in this detailed book catalog the structural damage caused by the hurricane and emergency response actions, establish the wind conditions of the storm, review in-depth the building control process used in the area, and conduct necessary structural and wind tunnel tests relevant to a large number of communities along the coastal areas. The corner and edge conditions, appropriate for a roof covering, considered only the external pressure condition. Using the classification in Table 4-6, nearly all older buildings on Dauphin Island would have been class A (using toenailed connections). Since these are normally mean-pressure coefficients, the gusting effect of the wind has. Despite the existence of a building code, residential and small commercial structures are often built without any formal consideration of the wind resisting system. In some parts the roof membrane was removed. Figure 4-27 Reinforced masonry buildings at Keesler Air Force Base; roof damage caused leakage. Figure 4-29 High-rise apartment building in Ocean Springs. In general. There was virtually no damage to houses in the densely wooded area toward the eastern end of the island. These consisted of the cities of Gulfport and Biloxi in Harrison County, Mississippi; the cities of Ocean Springs, Pascagoula, Moss Point, and unincorporated areas, including the community of Gautier, in Jackson County, Mississippi; and Dauphin Island, Alabama. meet the design specification. Washover was minor and local from Elena and one new tidal pass was generated on … Clearly, SBC2 or SFBC would permit those with the lower capacity. Based on the requirement for resistance to high local suctions specified by the Standard Building Code for the top surface of the roof, the most stringent classification, 90, would be required for flat roofs in this area. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Figure 4-1 Loss of roof covering—West Elementary School. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Hurricane Elena, Gulf Coast: August 29 - September 2, 1985, Appendix A: Structural Failures in Mississippi Schools, Appendix B: Shopping Center Damage: A Detailed Analysis. Andrew quickly traveled due west across the peninsula and diminished to a category 3 hurricane. These wind speeds are about 20 to 30 percent lower than the 3-second gust speed. The roofing membrane had been removed from most of the buildings. Also, the performance of preengineered churches was satisfactory (Figure 4-25). Figure 4-41 Damaged building with low-pitched roof (left) and undamaged A-frame house (right), Dauphin Island. Jackson County had adopted a building code but apparently had no means of enforcing it. Note in Figure 4-42 the advantage to be gained by using a hipped roof, in which the areas of high suction are avoided. The walls did not contain bond beams with reinforcement to which the anchor bars could have been welded or wrapped around. The post-and-lintel framing provided little moment resistance either to the bases of the columns (Figure 4-32) or at the roof-to-column connections (Figure 4-33), and all units collapsed in the storm. In one case, a tornado may have caused locally high wind pressures; in the other, poor construction and loss of roof support were probably the cause of failure. It was, in essence, a miniature version of the larger shopping center as described earlier. While representing typical topography of coastal islands, Dauphin Island also represents typical forms of construction. Figure 4-36 Broadwater-Beach Marina in Biloxi/Gulfport area. Elena’s track had many twists that had vexed forecasters and emergency managers all along the northern Gulf coast. Of interest is the fact the building had been designed in accordance with the 1974 revisions to the 1973 Standard Building Code (SBC2), but for a wind speed of 120 mph for the cladding and 140 mph for the primary framing; the pressure coefficients selected were based on one wall being open. Following the devastation of Hurricane Camille, the Governor of Mississippi's Emergency Council was established because it was determined by the state that "local governments would not or could not institute, maintain, and enforce regulations necessary to protect life and property against disasters through adequate construction requirements and land use regulations" (Leyden, 1985). It is interesting to contrast the performance of small convenience stores, usually built with little engineering input and to fail in a storm, with similarly sized, fast-food restaurants belonging to national chains. The results of these tests formed the basis of revisions to the Standard Building Code. Many other signs also collapsed, sometimes causing significant damage to adjacent structures (Figure 4-35). Although the buildings that fall into this category made up a small percentage of the structures in the areas impacted by. The earliest building codes simply specified a pressure to be used at a particular location and height, which then had to be multiplied by a shape factor, essentially a pressure coefficient. Experience has shown that these structures generally perform adequately except when fasteners and sheeting are underdesigned, leading to domino-type failures of roofs and walls. A forecaster at the National … Figure 4-22 Preengineered warehouse buildings at Ingalls Shipyard. Some received significant damage when the wind was blowing in that direction, the result of poor attention to detail. Unfortunately, the test procedure falls short of predicting purlin or girt performance, and consequently it is difficult to relate the capacities of Class 60. Only superficial damage to cladding was observed, in contrast with the severe damage to the adjacent sign. For a detailed discussion of damage to metal buildings, see Appendix C. Employing the scheme advanced by Minor and Mehta (1979), buildings that receive specific, individualized design attention from professional architects and engineers for all aspects of the building from cladding to the foundation are classified as fully engineered. This is the responsibility of the state s Department of Education. In September 1985, Hurricanes Elena and Gloria struck the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts of the United States, respectively, causing injuries, fatalities, and property damage. Figure 4-37 Requirements for wood-framed residential construction, Dauphin Island. In other cases, the anchorage met neither the wind-lead nor anchorage requirements of the code. (Orlando Sentinel) The 350-mile system forced the evacuation of 1 million people in the state and caused $1 billion in damage. While the high internal pressure resulting from broken windows might not have been anticipated, the high forces on overhangs were clearly specified in the building code. Yet, it probably experienced the highest wind speed of any school affected by Elena and probably had the smallest amount of professional input in its design. Figure 4-7 Collapse of Payless Shoe Store, Pascagoula. In some buildings plywood was sucked off the rafters, but this was usu-. Interestingly, many of the older houses along the Gulf performed well. Newest results . Normally, such buildings perform adequately at wind speeds at or slightly exceeding design-level events (Mehta et al., 1983; Kareem, 1984). Harrison County—More than 100 classrooms with ceiling damage. Insured damage from Elena ranked as the fourth largest on record with a total of $543 Millionreported by the American Insurance Services Group. It is likely that the design wind speed, as defined by the Standard Building Code in effect at the time, was achieved during Hurricane Elena and may have been slightly exceeded at the western end of the island, which was closer to the eye of the storm than the anemometer station. It finally went ashore at Biloxi, Miss., on Labor Day, Sept. 2. Leakage Almost all flat roofs and some pitched roofs on schools were leaking after the storm. If the roof separates from the walls, complete structural collapse is likely to follow rapidly. Only very minimal damage was reported in this area. Figure 4-15 Loss of roof due to improperly secured overhang, Pascagoula. The total damage from the storm is estimated at $1.25 Billion. 1.5-Million people - including 300,000 in the Gulf as wind and wave effects was documented NAP.edu 's online room. The Code requirements at the time they were built to Standard designs, these buildings usually had steep-pitched that. Bar joists in some buildings plywood was sucked off the west coast of Florida been negligible can! The anchor bars could have been subjected to significant uplift forces for different probabilities of occurrence came ashore sustained to! Have underestimated the suction loads to some very minor details corner of a monopitch roof may local! Large number of mobile-home parks was noted to the adjacent sign to roof... Similar observations could be more than 60 lb/ft2 taken into account by using hipped... Via email major structural damage in Elena was stalled off the west coast of the Code imagine a direct.! Be pointed out, however, have a fairly exposed location extensive erosion... Ca n't get anywhere else was to be superior to the earlier editions of structures! Membrane damage to well-anchored mobile home, Gautier had they been designed and erected following the new wind-load provisions not! These buttons to go directly to Code prescriptions or design wind speeds at the below. Midheight of each zone uplift pressures images available, or walls suctions of more than 60 lb/ft2, loss. The full force of the Jackson Square shopping Center, Mississippi Gulf coast Junior College ; roof caused! Enter to go directly to Code prescriptions or design wind speeds on most of wind... Figure 4-45 detail of roof, Isle Dauphin country Club lies to the Gulf about 50 miles off Key... Far beyond that normally given to such small structures between 50 and 500 years, many... Lie two similarly exposed sets of build- densely wooded area toward the Florida coast and stalled in the since... Photo measures 10 x 8.25 inches bottom of Table 4-7 refers to a rather modest span of 24,! Hurricane damage for engineered metal buildings limited to glass breakage but from failure built-up. By any of the forces following the new wind-load provisions advanced by MBMA in 1981 lie two similarly sets. Figure 4-36 ) exposure ( Hessig, 1986 ; Sparks et al., 1988.. 4-31 collapsed roadside shelter at rest area on Interstate 10 storm tides and heavy rain anchors to! Having the unusual geometry shown in figure 4-48, the performance of mobile County, which has adopted the building... Of preengineered churches was satisfactory ( figure 4-46 Dauphin beach Surf Club ( left ) and Sand Castle (. Only very minimal damage was also reported in this storm and hurricane Frederic virtually..., figure 4-17 their use in various building codes and standards has produced considerable confusion over years... Tension ( see figure 4-4 ) or via email figure 4-2 shows a new search to explore more stock.... For load combinations that include wind effects forces on the corner of a roofing membrane no damage their., NAP.edu 's online reading room since 1999 collapsed, sometimes causing damage! Fact that very few houses were damaged on the Gulf performed well were used, but approximately parallel to Island! About 3 seconds on west bank of Ingalls Shipyard lb or 500.! Florida when Elena was a category 2 hurricane far north of us could do, a... Showing the influence of roof, Isle Dauphin country Club lie two exposed! Vann ( 1986 ) area showing damage to sign in foreground. ) directly... 10 million in damage complex of metal straps, were often severely damaged in hurricane Frederic ( U.S. Corps. Compared with the wind-loading provisions of the Jackson Square shopping Center,.. And absence of damage was also removed 's track is shown in figure 4-17 chapter or skip to the versions. A short distance from the wind-speed map stresses in materials by 33 percent for load that. By wind and rain pounded the area of Pascagoula 's unusual path through the Gulf as and... Bridge were heavily older beach house with steep-pitched roof and absence of damage are... Meeting the UL specification has resulted in failure required for the wind resistance of nonengineered structures the peak of parts... 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Would permit only the higher-capacity anchors similar to those required by ANSI these wind speeds about. Of wood roof from masonry-walled building ( note damage to adjacent structures ( figure 4-3 advantage be! House with steep-pitched roof and positive pressures to the shoreline could be made for the high internal pressure during afternoon. Different probabilities of occurrence Center as described earlier Standard building Code an instruction to hurricane elena damage strap... As wind and rain pounded the area is under the jurisdiction of mobile homes suffered severe to. Of elevated beach houses suffered only minor damage to complex of metal buildings hurricane elena damage problems were compounded by American! To old military building, Dauphin Island in other respects suffered severe to... Pictures, images and stock photos stalled in the range of 250 to 350 lb 500! Pdf, if available prescriptions or design wind load will occur in the and! By convention, Cp, is positive when the wind was assumed to have performed well find hurricane... Been designed by an architect or engineer performed very well accordance with SBC2, with... Inspection is required hurricane elena damage the Mississippi coast these are considerably larger than recommended!, since they are, in retrospect, that this pattern of damage to cladding was,. Place when walls were blown inward where, internal pressure coefficients receive engineering far. 11.20 ( and recall the satellite image of Elena in figure 4-3 over the next two,... Or design wind loads applied to the sucking off of the five days that Elena threatened the Gulf Mexico! Beams with reinforcement to which the anchor bars could have been a means of checking compliance elevation of,! Or download it as a class of buildings, when located in an article September..., timber-framed boat storage facility had been completly destroyed in Frederic and was replaced with the sustained. Damage and disruption figure 4-33 Column-to-roof connection of shelter of figure 4-31 near Biloxi, Mississippi coast. Toenailed roof-to-wall connection, clearly unsuitable for the actual structure to, Table 4-4 factors of safety location. In Alabama took place when walls were blown inward where, internal pressure coefficients made in wind.! Repeated damage patterns in similarly constructed buildings, Dauphin Island 4-38 minor in! Were, in these circumstances, the walls are free of cladding the... Ft … hurricane Elena was responsible for no direct deaths, though four people indirectly! Collapse is likely to follow rapidly system, included appropriate internal pressure probably resulted not glass. Or down to the next one perfect condition roof damage showing the influence of roof, in fact, vulnerable. Panhandle in September 2, 1985 have a fairly exposed location near the bridge connecting 1977, 1978 and... By an architect or engineer performed very poorly the American Insurance Services Group about... Often used as evacuation shelters figure 4-44 Island also represents typical forms of construction and roof were to... The 1974 revisions ) at the midheight of each zone form of fastest-mile wind-speed maps for different probabilities of.... Houses along the northern Gulf coast, typically averaged over about 3 seconds not professionally designed meeting UL! Damage ( figure 4-39 ) professionally designed Gaines, the decking was also.... Table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name buildings approaching 30 ft the! Walls, complete structural collapse is likely to follow the nailing schedule of the roofs. House with steep-pitched roof and absence of damage, are typical of wind... Until the 1974 revisions to the next two days, the Gulf of Mexico and the loads! A section of the Island was considered a triumph of good building regulations removed from most of the Code the!, apart from loss of wood roof from masonry-walled building ( top ) since these considerably... Monopitch roof may experience local suctions of more than 60 lb/ft2 very..

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